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/*-*- mode:unix-assembly; indent-tabs-mode:t; tab-width:8; coding:utf-8 -*-│
vi: set et ft=asm ts=8 tw=8 fenc=utf-8 :vi
Copyright 2020 Justine Alexandra Roberts Tunney
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify │
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License. │
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of │
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software │
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
02110-1301 USA
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § program header
*/
#include "ape/config.h"
#include "ape/lib/pc.h"
#include "ape/macros.h"
#include "ape/notice.inc"
#include "ape/relocations.h"
#include "libc/elf/def.h"
#include "libc/macho.internal.h"
#include "libc/nexgen32e/uart.internal.h"
#include "libc/nexgen32e/vidya.internal.h"
#include "libc/nt/pedef.internal.h"
#include "libc/dce.h"
#include "libc/sysv/consts/prot.h"
#define USE_SYMBOL_HACK 0
.source "LICENSE"
.source "ape/ape.S"
.source "ape/ape.lds"
.section .text,"ax",@progbits
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
.previous
.section .rodata,"a",@progbits
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
__ro: .endobj __ro,globl,hidden # ←for gdb readibility
.previous
.section .data,"aw",@progbits
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
.previous
.section .bss,"aw",@nobits
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
.previous
.section .rodata.str1.1,"aMS",@progbits
cstr: .endobj cstr,globl,hidden # ←for gdb readibility
.previous
.section .sort.rodata.real.str1.1,"aMS",@progbits
rlstr: .endobj rlstr,globl,hidden # ←for gdb readibility
.previous
.section .head,"ax",@progbits
/*
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § the old technology
*/
/ MZ Literally Executable Header
/
/ This is the beginning of the program file and it can serve as an
/ entrypoint too. It shouldn't matter if the program is running on
/ Linux, Windows, etc. Please note if the underlying machine isn't
/ a machine, this header may need to morph itself to say the magic
/ words, e.g. ELF, which also works fine as a generic entrypoint.
/
/ @see www.delorie.com/djgpp/doc/exe/
/ @noreturn
ape.mz: .ascii "MZ" # Mark 'Zibo' Joseph Zbikowski
jno 2f # MZ: bytes on last page
jo 2f # MZ: 512-byte pages in file
.ascii "='" # MZ: reloc table entry count
.ascii "\n\0" # MZ: data segment file offset / 16
.short 0x1000 # MZ: lowers upper bound load / 16
.short 0xf800 # MZ: roll greed on bss
.short 0 # MZ: lower bound on stack segment
.short 0 # MZ: initialize stack pointer
.short 0 # MZ: ∑bₙ checksum don't bother
.short 0x0100 # MZ: initial ip value
.short 0x0800 # MZ: increases cs load lower bound
.short 0x0040 # MZ: reloc table offset
.short 0 # MZ: overlay number
.org 0x24 # MZ: bytes reserved for you
.ascii "JT" # MZ: OEM identifier
.short 0 # MZ: OEM information
.org 0x40-4 # MZ: bytes reserved for you
.long RVA(ape.pe) # PE: the new technology
.endfn ape.mz,globl,hidden
/ Disk Operating System Stub
/ @noreturn
.org 0x40 # mz/elf header length
stub: mov $0x40,%dl # *literally* dos
jmp 1f # good bios skips here
1: jmp pc # thus avoiding heroics
nop # system five bootpoint
.org 0x48,0x90 # note ⌂ELF means JG 47
jmp 3f # MZ also means pop r10
2: sub $8,%rsp # a.k.a. dec %ax sub %sp
xor %edx,%edx # MZ ate BIOS drive code
3: .byte 0xbd,0,0 # a.k.a. mov imm,%bp
jmp pc # real mode, is real
jmp _start # surprise it's unix
.endfn stub
/*
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § ibm personal computer
IBM designed BIOS to run programs by handing over the computer
to a program as soon as its first sector is loaded. That gives
us control over user-facing latency, even though the next step
will generally be asking the BIOS to load more.
The process is trivial enough that this entrypoint can support
handoffs from alternative program-loaders e.g. Grub and MS-DOS
so long as they either load our full program, or implement the
PC BIOS disk service API.
Since so many different implementations of these APIs have been
built the last forty years these routines also canonicalize the
cpu and program state, as it is written in the System V ABI. */
/ Initializes program and jumps to real mode loader.
/
/ @param dl drive number (use 0x40 to skip bios disk load)
/ @mode real
/ @noreturn
.code16
pc: cld
#if USE_SYMBOL_HACK
.byte 0x0f,0x1f,0207 # nop rdi binbase
.short (0x7c00-IMAGE_BASE_VIRTUAL)/512
#endif
mov $REAL_STACK_FRAME>>4,%di # we need a stack
xor %cx,%cx
mov %cx,%es
rlstack %di,%cx
push %cs # memcpy() [relocate this page]
pop %ds
call 1f
1: pop %si
sub $RVA(1b),%si
mov $IMAGE_BASE_REAL>>4,%ax
push %ax # save real base
push %ax
pop %es
xor %di,%di
mov $512,%cx
rep movsb
#if USE_SYMBOL_HACK
.byte 0x0f,0x1f,0207 # nop rdi binbase
.short (IMAGE_BASE_REAL-0x7c00)/512
#endif
ljmp $0,$REAL(1f) # longjmp()
1: mov %cx,%ds # %ds and %cs are now zero
mov $XLM_SIZE,%cx # memset to clear real bss
mov $XLM_BASE_REAL>>4,%ax
mov %ax,%es
xor %ax,%ax
xor %di,%di
rep stosb
cmp $0x40,%dl # statfs() [disk geometry]
je 6f
call dsknfo
pop %es # restore real base
mov $1,%al # current sector
xor %cx,%cx # current cylinder
xor %dh,%dh # current head
mov $v_ape_realsectors,%di # total sectors
3: call pcread
dec %di
jnz 3b
6: mov $XLM(LOADSTATE),%di # ax,cx,dx,es
stosw
xchg %cx,%ax
stosw
xchg %dx,%ax
stosw
mov %es,%ax
stosw
ljmp $0,$REAL(realmodeloader)
.endfn pc,globl,hidden
/ Determines disk geometry.
/
/ We use imperial measurements for storage systems so the software
/ can have an understanding of physical locality, which deeply
/ impacts the latency of operations.
/
/ - 160KB: 1 head × 40 cylinders × 8 sectors × 512 = 163,840
/ - 180KB: 1 head × 40 cylinders × 9 sectors × 512 = 184,320
/ - 320KB: 2 heads × 40 cylinders × 8 sectors × 512 = 327,680
/ - 360KB: 2 heads × 40 cylinders × 9 sectors × 512 = 368,640
/ - 720KB: 2 heads × 80 cylinders × 9 sectors × 512 = 737,280
/ - 1.2MB: 2 heads × 80 cylinders × 15 sectors × 512 = 1,228,800
/ - 1.44MB: 2 heads × 80 cylinders × 18 sectors × 512 = 1,474,560
/
/ Terminology
/
/ - Cylinder / Tracks should mean the same thing
/ - Heads / Sides / Spindles should mean the same thing
/
/ Disk Base Table
/
/ 0: specify byte 1, step-rate time, head unload time
/ 1: specify byte 2, head load time, DMA mode
/ 2: timer ticks to wait before disk motor shutoff
/ 3: bytes per sector code
/ 0: 128 bytes 2: 512 bytes
/ 1: 256 bytes 3: 1024 bytes
/ 4: sectors per track (last sector number)
/ 5: inter-block gap length/gap between sectors
/ 6: data length, if sector length not specified
/ 7: gap length between sectors for format
/ 8: fill byte for formatted sectors
/ 9: head settle time in milliseconds
/ 10: motor startup time in eighths of a second
/
/ @param dl drive number
/ @return dl = pc_drive (corrected if clobbered by header)
/ pc_drive
/ pc_drive_type
/ pc_drive_heads
/ pc_drive_last_cylinder
/ pc_drive_last_sector
/ @clob ax, cx, dx, di, si, es, flags
/ @since IBM Personal Computer XT
dsknfo: push %bx
1: push %dx
mov $0x08,%ah # get disk params
int $0x13
jc 9f
mov %cl,%bh
and $0b00111111,%bh
and $0b11000000,%cl
rol %cl
rol %cl
xchg %cl,%ch
push %ds # disk base table in es:di
movpp %es,%ds
xor %si,%si
mov %si,%es
mov $XLM(DRIVE_BASE_TABLE),%si
xchg %si,%di
movsw #→ headunloadtime, headloadtime
movsw #→ shutofftime, bytespersector
movsw #→ sectorspertrack, sectorgap
movsw #→ datalength, formatgap
movsw #→ formatfill, settletime
movsb #→ startuptime
pop %ds
xchg %bx,%ax
stosw #→ pc_drive_type, pc_drive_last_sector
xchg %cx,%ax
stosw #→ pc_drive_last_cylinder
xchg %dx,%ax
stosw #→ pc_drives_attached, pc_drive_last_head
pop %ax
stosb #→ pc_drive
xchg %ax,%dx
pop %bx
ret
9: pop %dx
8: xor $0x80,%dl # try cycling drive a/c
xor %ax,%ax # reset disk
int $0x13
jc 8b
jmp 1b
.endfn dsknfo
/ Reads disk sector via BIOS.
/
/ @param al sector number
/ @param es destination memory address >> 4
/ @param cx cylinder number
/ @param dh head number
/ @param dl drive number
/ @return number of sectors actually read
pcread: push %ax
push %cx
xchg %cl,%ch
ror %cl
ror %cl
or %al,%cl
xor %bx,%bx # es:bx is destination addr
mov $1,%al # read only one disk sector
mov $2,%ah # read disk sectors ordinal
int $0x13
pop %cx
pop %ax
jc 9f
mov %es,%si
add $512>>4,%si
mov %si,%es
inc %al
cmp XLM(DRIVE_LAST_SECTOR),%al
jbe 2f
mov $1,%al
inc %cx
cmp XLM(DRIVE_LAST_CYLINDER),%cx
jbe 2f
xor %cx,%cx
inc %dh
2: ret
9: push %ax
xor %ax,%ax # try disk reset on error
int $0x13
pop %ax
jmp pcread
.endfn pcread
/*
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § partition table
*/
/ Partition Table.
.Lape.mbrpad:
.org 0x1b4
.endobj .Lape.mbrpad
ape_disk:
.stub .Lape.diskid,quad
.org 0x1be,0x00
.macro .partn x
.stub .Lape.part\x\().status,byte # 0=absent / 0x80=present
.stub .Lape.part\x\().first.head,byte # in low 6 bits
.stub .Lape.part\x\().first.cylinder,byte
.stub .Lape.part\x\().first.sector,byte
.stub .Lape.part\x\().filesystem,byte
.stub .Lape.part\x\().last.head,byte
.stub .Lape.part\x\().last.cylinder,byte
.stub .Lape.part\x\().last.sector,byte
.stub .Lape.part\x\().lba,long # c₀*Cₙ + h₀*Hₙ + s₀*Sₙ
.stub .Lape.part\x\().sector.count,long # sectors are 512 bytes
.endm
.partn 1
.partn 2
.partn 3
.partn 4
.org 0x1fe
.short BOOTSIG
.endobj ape_disk
/*
besiyata
dishmaya
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § bell system five
the bourne executable & linkable format */
apesh: .ascii "'\n#'\"\n" # sixth edition shebang
.ascii "o=\"$(command -v \"$0\")\"\n"
.ascii "if [ -d /Applications ]; then\n"
.ascii "dd if=\"$o\""
.ascii " of=\"$o\""
.ascii " bs=8"
.ascii " skip=\""
.shstub .Lape.macho.dd.skip,2
.ascii "\" count=\""
.shstub .Lape.macho.dd.count,2
.ascii "\" conv=notrunc 2>/dev/null\n"
.ascii "elif exec 7<> \"$o\"; then\n"
.ascii "printf '"
.ascii "\\177ELF" # 0x0: ⌂ELF
.ascii "\\2" # 4: long mode
.ascii "\\1" # 5: little endian
.ascii "\\1" # 6: elf v1.o
.ascii "\\011" # 7: FreeBSD
.ascii "\\0" # 8: os/abi ver.
.ascii "\\0\\0\\0" # 9: padding 3/7
.ascii "\\0\\0\\0\\0" # padding 4/7
.ascii "\\2\\0" # 10: εxεcµταblε
.ascii "\\076\\0" # 12: NexGen32e
.ascii "\\1\\0\\0\\0" # 14: elf v1.o
.shstub .Lape.elf.entry,8 # 18: e_entry
.shstub .Lape.elf.phoff,8 # 20: e_phoff
.shstub .Lape.elf.shoff,8 # 28: e_shoff
.ascii "\\0\\0\\0\\0" # 30: e_flags
.ascii "\\100\\0" # 34: e_ehsize
.ascii "\\070\\0" # 36: e_phentsize
.shstub .Lape.elf.phnum,2 # 38: e_phnum
.ascii "\\0\\0" # 3a: e_shentsize
.shstub .Lape.elf.shnum,2 # 3c: e_shnum
.shstub .Lape.elf.shstrndx,2 # 3e: e_shstrndx
.ascii "' >&7\n"
.ascii "exec 7<&-\n"
.ascii "fi\n"
.ascii "exec \"$0\" \"$@\"\n" # etxtbsy tail recursion
.ascii "R=$?\n" # architecture optimistic
.ascii "\n"
.ascii "if [ $R -eq 126 ] && [ \"$(uname -m)\" != x86_64 ]; then\n"
.ascii "if Q=\"$(command -v qemu-x86_64)\"; then\n"
.ascii "exec \"$Q\" \"$0\" \"$@\"\n"
.ascii "else\n"
.ascii "echo error: need qemu-x86_64 >&2\n"
.ascii "fi\n"
.ascii "elif [ $R -eq 127 ]; then\n" # means argv[0] was wrong
.ascii " exec \"$o\" \"$@\"\n" # so do a path resolution
.ascii "fi\n"
.ascii "exit $R\n"
.endobj apesh
.section .elf.phdrs,"a",@progbits
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
.type ape.phdrs,@object
.globl ape.phdrs
ape.phdrs:
.long PT_LOAD # text segment
.long PF_R|PF_X
.stub .Lape.rom.offset,quad
.stub .Lape.rom.vaddr,quad
.stub .Lape.rom.paddr,quad
.stub .Lape.rom.filesz,quad
.stub .Lape.rom.memsz,quad
.stub .Lape.rom.align,quad
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
.long PT_LOAD # data segment
.long PF_R|PF_W
.stub .Lape.ram.offset,quad
.stub .Lape.ram.vaddr,quad
.stub .Lape.ram.paddr,quad
.stub .Lape.ram.filesz,quad
.stub .Lape.ram.memsz,quad
.stub .Lape.ram.align,quad
/ Linux ignores mprotect() and returns 0 without this lool
/ It has nothing to do with the stack, which is still exec
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
.long PT_GNU_STACK # p_type
.long PF_R|PF_W # p_flags
.quad 0 # p_offset
.quad 0 # p_vaddr
.quad 0 # p_paddr
.quad 0 # p_filesz
.quad 0 # p_memsz
.quad 16 # p_align
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
.long PT_NOTE # openbsd note
.long PF_R
.stub .Lape.note.offset,quad
.stub .Lape.note.vaddr,quad
.stub .Lape.note.paddr,quad
.stub .Lape.note.filesz,quad
.stub .Lape.note.memsz,quad
.stub .Lape.note.align,quad
.previous
.section .note.openbsd.ident,"a",@progbits
.Lopenbsd.ident:
.long 8
.long 4
.long 0x1
.asciz "OpenBSD"
.long 0
.size .Lopenbsd.ident,.-.Lopenbsd.ident
.type .Lopenbsd.ident,@object
.previous
/*
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § nexstep carnegie melon mach object format
@note hey xnu before we get upx'd email feedback jtunney@gmail.com
@see OS X ABI Mach-O File Format Reference, Apple Inc. 2009-02-04
@see System V Application Binary Interface NexGen32e Architecture
Processor Supplement, Version 1.0, December 5th, 2018 */
.section .macho,"a",@progbits
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
ape.macho:
.long 0xFEEDFACE+1
.long MAC_CPU_NEXGEN32E
.long MAC_CPU_NEXGEN32E_ALL
.long MAC_EXECUTE
.long 5 # number of load commands
.long 60f-10f # size of all load commands
.long MAC_NOUNDEFS # flags
.long 0 # reserved
10: .long MAC_LC_SEGMENT_64
.long 20f-10b # unmaps first page dir
.ascin "__PAGEZERO",16 # consistent with linux
.quad 0,0x200000,0,0 # which forbids mem <2m
.long 0,0,0,0
20: .long MAC_LC_SEGMENT_64
.long 30f-20b
.ascin "__TEXT",16
.stub .Lape.rom.vaddr,quad
.stub .Lape.rom.memsz,quad
.stub .Lape.rom.offset,quad
.stub .Lape.rom.filesz,quad
.long PROT_EXEC|PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE # maxprot
.long PROT_EXEC|PROT_READ # initprot
.long 1 # segment section count
.long 0 # flags
210: .ascin "__text",16 # section name (.text)
.ascin "__TEXT",16
.stub .Lape.text.vaddr,quad
.stub .Lape.text.memsz,quad
.stub .Lape.text.offset,long
.long 12 # align 2**12 = 4096
.long 0 # reloc table offset
.long 0 # relocation count
.long MAC_S_ATTR_SOME_INSTRUCTIONS # section type & attributes
.long 0,0,0 # reserved
30: .long MAC_LC_SEGMENT_64
.long 40f-30b
.ascin "__DATA",16
.stub .Lape.ram.vaddr,quad
.stub .Lape.ram.memsz,quad
.stub .Lape.ram.offset,quad
.stub .Lape.ram.filesz,quad
.long PROT_EXEC|PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE # maxprot
.long PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE # initprot
.long 2 # segment section count
.long 0 # flags
310: .ascin "__data",16 # section name (.data)
.ascin "__DATA",16
.stub .Lape.data.vaddr,quad
.stub .Lape.data.memsz,quad
.stub .Lape.data.offset,long
.long 12 # align 2**12 = 4096
.long 0 # reloc table offset
.long 0 # relocation count
.long 0 # section type & attributes
.long 0,0,0 # reserved
320: .ascin "__bss",16 # section name (.bss)
.ascin "__DATA",16
.stub .Lape.bss.vaddr,quad # virtual address
.stub .Lape.bss.memsz,quad # memory size
.long 0 # file offset
.long 12 # align 2**12 = 4096
.long 0 # reloc table offset
.long 0 # relocation count
.long MAC_S_ZEROFILL # section type & attributes
.long 0,0,0 # reserved
40: .long MAC_LC_UUID
.long 50f-40b
.stub uuid1_,quad
.stub uuid2_,quad
50: .long MAC_LC_UNIXTHREAD
.long 60f-50b # cmdsize
.long MAC_THREAD_NEXGEN32E # flavaflav
.long (520f-510f)/4 # count
510: .quad 0 # rax
.quad IMAGE_BASE_VIRTUAL # rbx
.quad 0 # rcx
.quad 0 # rdx
.quad 0 # rdi
.quad 0 # rsi
.quad 0 # rbp
.quad 0 # rsp
.quad 0 # r8
.quad 0 # r9
.quad 0 # r10
.quad 0 # r11
.quad 0 # r12
.quad 0 # r13
.quad 0 # r14
.quad 0 # r15
.quad _start_xnu # rip
.quad 0 # rflags
.quad 0 # cs
.quad 0 # fs
.quad 0 # gs
520:
60:
.endobj ape.macho,globl,hidden
.previous /* .macho */
/*
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § the new technology
The Portable Executable Format
@see https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/debug/pe-format
@see "The Portable Executable File Format from Top to Bottom",
Randy Kath, Microsoft Developer Network Technology Group. */
/ 14:Uniprocessor Machine
/ 13:DLL PE File Characteristics
/ 12:System
/ 11:If Net Run From Swap r reserved
/ 10:If Removable Run From Swap d deprecated
/ 9:Debug Stripped D deprecated with
/ 8:32bit Machine extreme prejudice
/ 5:Large Address Aware
/ 1:Executable
/ 0:Relocs Stripped
/ ddrDdd
.LPEEXE = 0b0000001000100011
/ 15:TERMINAL_SERVER_AWARE
/ 14:GUARD_CF PE DLL Characteristics
/ 13:WDM_DRIVER
/ 12:APPCONTAINER r reserved
/ 11:NO_BIND
/ 10:NO_SEH
/ 9:NO_ISOLATION
/ 8:NX_COMPAT
/ 7:FORCE_INTEGRITY
/ 6:DYNAMIC_BASE
/ 5:HIGH_ENTROPY_VA
/ rrrrr
.LDLLSTD = 0b0000000100100000
.LDLLPIE = 0b0000000001000000
.LDLLEXE = .LDLLSTD
/ 31:Writeable
/ 30:Readable PE Section Flags
/ 29:Executable
/ 28:Shareable o for object files
/ 27:Unpageable r reserved
/ 26:Uncacheable
/ 25:Discardable
/ 24:Contains Extended Relocations
/ 15:Contains Global Pointer (GP) Relative Data
/ 7:Contains Uninitialized Data
/ 6:Contains Initialized Data
/ o 5:Contains Code
/ rrrr oororrorrr
.LPETEXT = 0b01110000000000000000000001100000
.LPEDATA = 0b11000000000000000000000011000000
.LPEIMPS = 0b11000000000000000000000001000000
.section .pe.header,"a",@progbits
.align __SIZEOF_POINTER__
ape.pe: .ascin "PE",4
.short kNtImageFileMachineNexgen32e
.stub .Lape.pe.shnum,short # NumberOfSections
.long 0x5c64126b # TimeDateStamp
.long 0 # PointerToSymbolTable
.long 0 # NumberOfSymbols
.stub .Lape.pe.optsz,short # SizeOfOptionalHeader
.short .LPEEXE # Characteristics
.short kNtPe64bit # Optional Header Magic
.byte 14 # MajorLinkerVersion
.byte 15 # MinorLinkerVersion
.long 0 # SizeOfCode
.long 0 # SizeOfInitializedData
.long 0 # SizeOfUninitializedData
.long RVA(WinMain) # EntryPoint
.long 0 # BaseOfCode
.quad IMAGE_BASE_VIRTUAL # ImageBase
.long 4096 # SectionAlignment
.long 4096 # FileAlignment
.short 6 # MajorOperatingSystemVersion
.short 0 # MinorOperatingSystemVersion
.short 0 # MajorImageVersion
.short 0 # MinorImageVersion
.short 6 # MajorSubsystemVersion
.short 0 # MinorSubsystemVersion
.long 0 # Win32VersionValue
.long RVA(_end) # SizeOfImage
.long RVA(_ehead) # SizeOfHeaders
.long 0 # Checksum
.short v_ntsubsystem # Subsystem: 0=Neutral,2=GUI,3=Console
.short .LDLLEXE # DllCharacteristics
.quad 0x0000000000080000 # StackReserve
.quad 0x0000000000080000 # StackCommit
.quad 0 # HeapReserve
.quad 0 # HeapCommit
.long 0 # LoaderFlags
.long 16 # NumberOfDirectoryEntries
.long 0,0 # ExportsDirectory
.long RVA(idata.idt) # ImportsDirectory
.stub .Lidata.idtsize,long # ImportsDirectorySize
.long 0,0 # ResourcesDirectory
.long 0,0 # ExceptionsDirectory
.long 0,0 # SecurityDirectory
.long 0,0 # BaseRelocationTable
.long 0,0 # DebugDirectory
.long 0,0 # DescriptionString
.long 0,0 # MachineSpecific
.long 0,0 # ThreadLocalStorage
.long 0,0 # LoadConfigurationDirectory
.long 0,0 # BoundImportDirectory
.long RVA(idata.iat) # ImportAddressDirectory
.stub .Lidata.iatsize,long # ImportAddressDirectorySize
.long 0,0 # DelayImportDescriptor
.long 0,0 # ComPlusRuntimeHeader
.long 0,0 # Reserved
.endobj ape.pe,globl
.previous
.section .pe.sections,"a",@progbits
.ascin ".text",8 # Section Name
.stub .Lape.text.memsz,long # Virtual Size or Physical Address
.stub .Lape.text.rva,long # Relative Virtual Address
.stub .Lape.text.filesz,long # Physical Size
.stub .Lape.text.offset,long # Physical Offset
.long 0 # Relocation Table Offset
.long 0 # Line Number Table Offset
.short 0 # Relocation Count
.short 0 # Line Number Count
.long .LPETEXT # Flags
.previous
.section .pe.sections,"a",@progbits
.ascin ".data",8 # Section Name
.stub .Lape.ram.memsz,long # Virtual Size or Physical Address
.stub .Lape.ram.rva,long # Relative Virtual Address
.stub .Lape.ram.filesz,long # Physical Size
.stub .Lape.ram.offset,long # Physical Offset
.long 0 # Relocation Table Offset
.long 0 # Line Number Table Offset
.short 0 # Relocation Count
.short 0 # Line Number Count
.long .LPEDATA # Flags
.previous
.section .idata.ro.idt.1,"a",@progbits
.type idata.idtend,@object
.type idata.idt,@object
.globl idata.idt,idata.idtend
.hidden idata.idt,idata.idtend
idata.idt:
.previous/*
...
decentralized content
...
*/.section .idata.ro.idt.3,"a",@progbits
.long 0,0,0,0,0
idata.idtend:
.previous
.section .piro.data.sort.iat.1,"aw",@progbits
.type idata.iatend,@object
.type idata.iat,@object
.globl idata.iat,idata.iatend
.hidden idata.iat,idata.iatend
idata.iat:
.previous/*
...
decentralized content
...
*/.section .piro.data.sort.iat.3,"aw",@progbits
idata.iatend:
.previous
/*
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § early-stage read-only data
better code/data separation (.head is rwx[real] rx[long]) */
/ NUL-Terminated Strings.
ape.str:
.Lstr.ape:
.byte 0xe0,0x63,0xe7,0xe6,0xe0,0x6c,0x6c,0x79 #αcτµαlly
.byte 0x20,0x70,0xeb,0x72,0xe7,0xe0,0x62,0x6c # pδrταbl
.byte 0xee,0x20,0xee,0x78,0xee,0x63,0xe6,0xe7 #ε εxεcµτ
.byte 0xe0,0x62,0x6c,0xee,0x0d,0x0a,0x00 #αblε.
.endobj .Lstr.ape
.Lstr.error:
.asciz "error: "
.endobj .Lstr.error
.Lstr.crlf:
.asciz "\r\n"
.endobj .Lstr.crlf
.Lstr.cpuid:
.asciz "cpuid"
.endobj .Lstr.cpuid
.Lstr.oldskool:
.asciz "oldskool"
.endobj .Lstr.oldskool
.Lstr.dsknfo:
.asciz "dsknfo"
.endobj .Lstr.dsknfo
.Lstr.e820:
.asciz "e820"
.endobj .Lstr.e820
.Lstr.memory:
.asciz "nomem"
.endobj .Lstr.memory
.Lstr.long:
.asciz "nolong"
.endobj .Lstr.long
.endobj ape.str
/ Serial Line Configuration (8250 UART 16550)
/ If it's hacked, it'll at least get hacked very slowly.
sconf: .short 1843200/*hz*/ / 16/*wut*/ / 9600/*baud*/
/
/ interrupt trigger level {1,4,8,14}
/ enable 64 byte fifo (UART 16750+)
/ select dma mode
/ clear transmit fifo
/ clear receive fifo
/ enable fifos
.byte 0b00000000
/
/ dlab: flips configuration mode state
/ enable break signal
/ parity {none,odd,even,high,low}
/ extra stop bit
/ data word length (bits+5)
/
.byte 0b01000011
.endobj sconf,global,hidden
/ Global Descriptor Table
/
/ @note address portion only concern legacy modes
.align 8
gdt: .short 2f-1f # table byte length
.long REAL(1f),0 # table address
.zero 2
1:
/ G:granularity (1 limit *= 0x1000)
/ D/B:default operation size (0 = 16|64bit, 1 = 32-bit)
/ L:long mode
/ AVL:this bit is thine (1<<52)
/ P:present
/ DPL:privilege
/ data/code(1)
/ data(0)code(1)
/ conformingexpand-down
/ writeablereadable
/ accessedaccessed
/
/
/
/
/ base address segment limit
/ 32 bits 20 bits
/
/ 6666555555555544444444443333333333222222222211111111110000000000
/ 3210987654321098765432109876543210987654321098765432109876543210
/
.quad 0b0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 # 0
.quad 0b0000000000001111100110100000000000000000000000001111111111111111 # 8
.quad 0b0000000000001111100100100000000000000000000000001111111111111111 #16
.quad 0b0000000011001111100110100000000000000000000000001111111111111111 #24
.quad 0b0000000011001111100100100000000000000000000000001111111111111111 #32
.quad 0b0000000010101111100110110000000000000000000000001111111111111111 #40
.quad 0b0000000010101111100100110000000000000000000000001111111111111111 #48
2: .endobj gdt,global,hidden
/*
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § multiboot stub
boot modernized for the nineties */
#define GRUB_MAGIC 0x1BADB002
#define GRUB_EAX 0x2BADB002
#define GRUB_AOUT (1 << 16)
#define GRUB_CHECKSUM(FLAGS) (-(GRUB_MAGIC + (FLAGS)) & 0xffffffff)
/ Grub Header.
.align 4
ape.grub:
.long GRUB_MAGIC # Magic
.long GRUB_AOUT # Flags
.long GRUB_CHECKSUM(GRUB_AOUT) # Checksum
.long RVA(ape.grub) # HeaderPhysicalAddress
.long IMAGE_BASE_PHYSICAL # TextPhysicalAddress
.long PHYSICAL(_edata) # LoadEndPhysicalAddress
.long PHYSICAL(_end) # BssEndPhysicalAddress
.long RVA(ape.grub.entry) # EntryPhysicalAddress
.endobj ape.grub,globl,hidden
/ Grub Entrypoint.
/ Takes CPU out of legacy mode and jumps to normal entrypoint.
/ @noreturn
.align 4
ape.grub.entry:
.code32
cmp $GRUB_EAX,%eax
jne triplf
push $0
popf
mov $0x40,%dl
mov %cr0,%eax
and $~CR0_PE,%eax
mov %eax,%cr0
ljmpw $0,$REAL(pc)
.code16
.endfn ape.grub.entry
/*
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § real mode
the default mode of operation on modern cpus */
nop
nop
nop
nop
realmodeloader:
call rlinit
call sinit4
mov $REAL(.Lstr.ape),%di
call rvputs
.optfn _start16
call _start16
call longmodeloader
.endfn realmodeloader,globl,hidden
.section .sort.text.real.init.1,"ax",@progbits
.type rlinit,@function
rlinit: .previous/*
...
decentralized function
...
*/.section .sort.text.real.init.3,"ax",@progbits
ret
.previous
/ Initializes present PC serial lines.
sinit4: mov $4,%cx
mov $kBiosDataAreaXlm+COM1,%si
0: lodsw
test %ax,%ax
jz 1f
push %cx
push %si
xchg %ax,%di
mov $REAL(sconf),%si
call sinit
pop %si
pop %cx
1: loop 0b
ret
.endfn sinit4,global,hidden
/ Initializes Serial Line Communications 8250 UART 16550A
/
/ @param word di tty port
/ @param char (*{es:,e,r}si)[4] register initial values
/ @mode long,legacy,real
/ @see www.lammertbies.nl/comm/info/serial-uart.html
sinit: mov %di,%dx
test %dx,%dx
jz 2f
push %dx
push %si
xorw %cx,%cx
mov $UART_LCR,%cl
add %cx,%dx
lodsb %ds:(%si),%al
pop %si
or $UART_DLAB,%al
out %al,%dx
pop %dx
1: lodsb %ds:(%si),%al
out %al,%dx
add $1,%dx
sub $1,%cx
jns 1b
2: ret
.endfn sinit,global,hidden
/ Video put string.
/
/ @param di is the string
/ @mode real
rvputs: push %bp
push %bx
mov %di,%si
0: lodsb
test %al,%al
je 1f
mov $7,%bx # normal mda/cga style page zero
mov $0x0e,%ah # teletype output al cp437
int $0x10 # vidya service
jmp 0b
1: pop %bx
pop %bp
ret
.endfn rvputs,globl,hidden
/ Abnormally halts startup.
/
/ @param di message
/ @mode real
/ @noreturn
rldie: push %di
mov $REAL(.Lstr.error),%di
call rvputs
pop %di
call rvputs
mov $REAL(.Lstr.crlf),%di
call rvputs
xor %ax,%ax # get keystroke
int $0x16 # keyboard service
jmp triplf
.endfn rldie,globl,hidden
/*
αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε § long mode loader
long mode is long */
longmodeloader:
call lcheck
call a20
mov $XLM(E820),%di
mov $XLM_E820_SIZE,%si
call e820
jc 9f
call unreal
/ call hiload
call pinit
jmp golong
9: mov $REAL(.Lstr.e820),%ax
call rldie
.endfn longmodeloader,globl,hidden
/ Long Mode Hardware Check
lcheck: pushf # check for i8086 / i8088 / i80186
pop %ax
test $0x80,%ah # see intel manual volume 1 20.1.2
jnz 9f # we now assume 32bit is supported
pushfl # now check for i386 or early i486
pop %eax # test ability to change cpuid bit
mov %eax,%ecx
mov $1<<21,%ebx
xor %ebx,%eax
push %eax
popfl
pushfl
pop %eax
cmp %eax,%ecx
je 12f # we assume cpuid inst is available
or %ebx,%eax # puts cpuid bit in the on position
push %eax
popfl
mov $0x80000000,%edi # get amd ext cpuid thingy length
mov %edi,%eax
inc %edi
cpuid # clobbers eax, ebx, ecx, and edx
cmp %edi,%eax
jl 10f
mov %edi,%eax
cpuid
mov $1<<29,%edi # need nexgen32e long mode support
and %edi,%edx
cmp %edi,%edx
jne 10f
xor %ax,%ax
1: ret
9: mov $REAL(.Lstr.oldskool),%ax
jmp 20f
10: mov $REAL(.Lstr.long),%ax
jmp 20f
12: mov $REAL(.Lstr.cpuid),%ax
jmp 20f
20: call rldie
.endfn lcheck
/ Gets memory map from BIOS.
/
/ @param di paragraph aligned buffer
/ @param si bytes in buffer to fill
/ @return number of bytes written or CF on error
/ @mode real
e820: push %bp
mov %sp,%bp
pushl $'S<<24|'M<<16|'A<<8|'P # magic @ -4(%bp)
push %bx
shr $4,%di
mov %di,%es
xor %edi,%edi # es:di is destination buffer
xor %ebx,%ebx # ebx is an api state tracker
1: mov $0xE820,%eax # magic
mov $8+8+4+4,%ecx # sizeof(struct SmapEntry)
mov -4(%bp),%edx # magic
int $0x15 # ax,bx,cx,dx,di → ax,bx,cx
jc 9f # cf = unsupported or abuse
cmp -4(%bp),%eax # more magic means success
jne 9f
test %cx,%cx # discard empty results
jz 5f
cmp $8+8+4+1,%cx # discard if ignore flag
jb 4f
testb $1/*ignore*/,8+8+4/*SmapEntry::__acpi3*/(%di)
jnz 5f
4: add $8+8+4+4,%di # keep entry
5: test %ebx,%ebx # last entry?
jz 7f
cmp %si,%di # out of buf?
jb 1b
7: mov %di,%ax
8: pop %bx
leave
ret
9: stc
jmp 8b
.endfn e820,globl,hidden
/ Unreal Mode.
/ Makes 4gb of real memory accessible via %fs segment.
unreal: cli
lgdt REAL(gdt)
mov %cr0,%eax
or $CR0_PE,%al
mov %eax,%cr0
jmp 1f
1: mov $GDT_LEGACY_DATA,%cx
mov %cx,%fs
and $~CR0_PE,%al
mov %eax,%cr0
ljmp $0,$REAL(1f)
1: sti
ret
.endfn unreal
/ Loads remainder of executable off disk.
hiload: push %bx
mov $IMAGE_BASE_REAL,%esi # relocate, again
mov $IMAGE_BASE_PHYSICAL,%ebx
mov $v_ape_realsectors,%ecx
shl $9,%ecx
or $-4,%edx
0: add $4,%edx
cmp %edx,%ecx
je 1f
mov %fs:(%esi,%edx),%eax
mov %eax,%fs:(%ebx,%edx)
jmp 0b
1: lea (%ebx,%edx),%ebx
mov $v_ape_highsectors,%di # then copy rest off disk
mov $REAL_SCRATCH_AREA>>4,%ax # to real memory buffer
mov %ax,%es
mov XLM(LOADSTATE)+0,%ax
mov XLM(LOADSTATE)+2,%cx
mov XLM(LOADSTATE)+4,%dx
0: test %di,%di
jz 9f
mov %di,%ax
push %bx
xor %bx,%bx
call pcread
pop %bx
sub %ax,%di
push %cx
mov %ax,%cx # copy real buffer to high
shl $9,%cx # no way bios loaded >64k
xor %si,%si
1: mov %es:(%si),%eax
mov %eax,%fs:(%ebx)
add $4,%ebx
add $4,%si
sub $4,%cx
jnz 1b
pop %cx
jmp 0b
9: pop %bx
ret
.endfn hiload
/ Asks keyboard to grant system 65,519 more bytes of memory.
/
/ Yup.
/
/ @assume realmode && df=0
/ @clob ax,di,si,es,flags
/ @mode real
/ @see wiki.osdev.org/A20_Line
a20: cli
push %ds
xor %ax,%ax
mov %ax,%es
dec %ax
mov %ax,%ds
mov $0x0500,%di
mov $0x0510,%si
mov %es:(%di),%al
push %ax
mov %ds:(%si),%al
push %ax
movb $0x00,%es:(%di)
movb $0xff,%ds:(%si)
cmpb $0xff,%es:(%di)
pop %ax
mov %al,%ds:(%si)
pop %ax
mov %al,%es:(%di)
pop %ds
jne 3f
mov $1,%ax
call 1f
mov $0xad,%al
out %al,$0x64
call 1f
mov $0xd0,%al
out %al,$0x64
call 2f
in $0x60,%al
push %ax
call 1f
mov $0xd1,%al
out %al,$0x64
call 1f
pop %ax
or $2,%al
out %al,$0x60
call 1f
mov $0xae,%al
out %al,$0x64
call 1f
jmp a20
1: in $0x64,%al
test $2,%al
jnz 1b
ret
2: in $0x64,%al
test $1,%al
jz 2b
ret
3: sti
5: ret
.endfn a20,globl,hidden # obj since waste of objdump space
/ Initializes long mode paging.
/
/ Modern computers access memory via four levels of indirection:
/
/ register char (*(*(*(*ram)[512])[512])[512])[4096] asm(cr3)
/
/ Your page tables grow down in memory, starting from the real
/ stack segment base. This function only defines enough tables
/ to get us started.
#define TIP REAL_STACK_FRAME
pinit: push %ds
mov $(TIP-0x4000)>>4,%ax
mov %ax,%ds
movl $TIP-0x2000+PAGE_V+PAGE_RW,0x3000 # PML4T→PDPT
movl $TIP-0x3000+PAGE_V+PAGE_RW,0x2000 # PDPT→PDT
movl $TIP-0x4000+PAGE_V+PAGE_RW,0x1000 # PDT→PD
mov $0x100000/0x1000,%cx # PD→512kb
mov $PAGE_V+PAGE_RW,%eax
xor %si,%si
0: mov %eax,(%si)
add $0x1000,%eax
add $8,%si
loop 0b
movb $0,0 # unmap null
pop %ds
movl $TIP-0x4000,XLM(PAGE_TABLE_STACK_POINTER) # STACK→XLM
mov $TIP-0x1000,%eax # PML4T→CR3
mov %eax,%cr3
ret
.endfn pinit,globl,hidden
/ Switch from Real Mode Long Mode
/
/ @see Intel Manual V3A §4.1.2
golong: cli
lidt XLM(BADIDT)
mov %cr4,%eax
or $CR4_PAE|CR4_PGE|CR4_OSFXSR,%eax
mov %eax,%cr4
movl $EFER,%ecx
rdmsr
or $EFER_LME|EFER_SCE,%eax
wrmsr
lgdt REAL(gdt)
mov %cr0,%eax
or $CR0_PE|CR0_PG|CR0_MP,%eax
and $~CR0_EM,%eax
mov %eax,%cr0
ljmp $GDT_LONG_CODE,$REAL(long)
.endfn golong
/ Long mode is long.
/ @noreturn
.code64
long: push $GDT_LONG_DATA
pop %rax
mov %eax,%ds
mov %eax,%ss
mov %eax,%es
mov %eax,%fs
mov %eax,%gs
xor %ebp,%ebp
mov $REAL_STACK_FRAME+FRAMESIZE,%esp
call __map_image
ezlea metal,ax
jmp *%rax
.endfn long
/ Long mode in virtual address space.
/ @noreturn
metal:
#if USE_SYMBOL_HACK
.byte 0x0f,0x1f,0207 # nop rdi binbase
.long (IMAGE_BASE_VIRTUAL-IMAGE_BASE_REAL)/512
#endif
xor %eax,%eax # clear bss
mov $.Lape.bss.vaddr,%edi
mov $.Lape.bss.memsz,%ecx
rep stosb
.weak __hostos
ezlea __hostos,ax
test %rax,%rax
jz 1f
movb $METAL,(%rax)
1: push $0 # auxv
push $0
push $0 # envp
push $0 # auxv
push $0 # argc
xor %edi,%edi
jmp _start
.endfn metal
/ Avoid linker script variables appearing as code in objdump.
.macro .ldsvar name:req
.type \name,@object
.weak \name
.endm
.ldsvar _end
.ldsvar _etext
.ldsvar v_ape_realsectors
.ldsvar v_ape_highsectors
.ldsvar idata.ro
.ldsvar ape.pad.rodata
.ldsvar ape.piro
.ldsvar ape.piro.end
.type .Lape.macho.end,@object
.type .Lape.note,@object
.type .Lape.note.end,@object
.type .Lape.note.vaddr,@object
.type .Lape.pe.sections,@object
.type .Lape.pe.sections_end,@object
.type .Lape.text.nops,@object
.type __test_end,@object
.section .commentprologue,"a",@progbits
.type kLegalNotices,@object
.hidden kLegalNotices
kLegalNotices:/*
...
decentralized content
...
*/.previous
.section .commentepilogue,"a",@progbits
.byte 0
.previous
.section .ape.pad.head,"a",@progbits
.type ape.pad.head,@object
.hidden ape.pad.head
ape.pad.head:
.previous
.section .ape.pad.text,"a",@progbits
.type ape.pad.text,@object
.hidden ape.pad.text
ape.pad.text:
.previous
.section .ape.pad.privileged,"a",@progbits
.type ape.pad.privileged,@object
.hidden ape.pad.privileged
ape.pad.privileged:
.previous
.section .ape.pad.test,"a",@progbits
.type ape.pad.test,@object
.hidden ape.pad.test
ape.pad.test:
.previous
.section .ape.pad.test,"a",@progbits
.type ape.pad.test,@object
.hidden ape.pad.test
ape.pad.test:
.previous
.section .ape.pad.rodata,"a",@progbits
.type ape.pad.rodata,@object
.hidden ape.pad.rodata
ape.pad.rodata:
.previous
.section .ape.pad.data,"a",@progbits
.type ape.pad.data,@object
.hidden ape.pad.data
ape.pad.data:
.previous
.section .idata.ro,"a",@progbits
.type idata.ro,@object
.hidden idata.ro
idata.ro:
.previous
.section .dataprologue,"aw",@progbits
.type __data_start,@object
.globl __data_start
.hidden __data_start
__data_start:
.previous
.type __piro_start,@object
.hidden __piro_start
.type __ubsan_data_start,@object
.type __ubsan_data_end,@object
.type __ubsan_types_start,@object
.type __ubsan_types_end,@object
.end